Illinois Fire Service Institute


Academic Papers and Publications

As part of a broad dissemination strategy, IFSI Research is committed to rigorous academic peer review of our research results. Below is a list of peer-reviewed manuscripts supporting our Fire Service Reports that provide translation for implementation in fire departments across the country and around the world. For more information on each paper, click on the ‘View Online’, ‘PubMed’, or ‘OPEN ACCESS’ links after each of the papers or contact the IFSI Library for additional assistance.

Articles in Press

  1. Kesler, R.M., Ensari, I., Klaren, R.E., Motl, R.W., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T., Rosengren, K.S., Fernhall, B., Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P. (2017) “Physiological response to firefighting activities of various work cycles using extended duration and prototype SCBA”, Ergonomics, Article in Press. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2017.1360519. OPEN ACCESS.
  2. Horn, G.P., Kesler, R.M., Kerber, S., Fent, K.W., Schroeder, T.J., Scott, W.S., Fehling, P.C., Fernhall, B., Smith, D.L. (2017) “Thermal response to firefighting activities in residential structure fires: Impact of job assignment and suppression tactic”, Ergonomics, Article in Press. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2017.1355072. OPEN ACCESS.
  3. Kesler, R. M., Klieger, A. E. , Boes, M. K., Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T., Klaren, R. E., Learmonth, Y., Motl, R. W. and Horn, G. P.(2017) "Egress Efficacy of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis during Simulated Evacuations." Fire Technology, Article in Press. doi:10.1007/s10694-017-0668-9. OPEN ACCESS.



  1. Fent, K.W., Alexander, B., Roberts, J., S. Robertson, Toennis, C., Sammons, D., Bertke, S., Kerber, S., Smith, D., Horn, G. (2017) “Contamination of firefighter personal protective equipment and skin and the effectiveness of decontamination procedures”, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14(10):801-814 DOI:10.1080/15459624.2017.1334904. OPEN ACCESS.
  2. Traina, N., Kerber, S., Kyritsis, D.C., Horn, G.P. (2017) "Occupant Tenability in Single Family Homes: Part I - Impact of Structure Type, Fire Location and Interior Doors Prior to Fire Department Arrival". Fire Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s10694-017-0651-5. OPEN ACCESS.
  3. Traina, N., Kerber, S., Kyritsis, D.C., Horn, G.P. (2017) "Occupant Tenability in Single Family Homes: Part II - Impact of Door Control, Vertical Ventilation and Water Application". Fire Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s10694-017-0652-4. OPEN ACCESS.



  1. Ensari I., Motl R.W., Klaren R.E., Fernhall B., Smith D.L., Horn G.P. (2016) “Firefighter exercise protocols conducted in an environmental chamber: Developing a laboratory based simulated firefighting protocol.Ergonomics, Published online 12 Jul 2016. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2016.1198496. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Willi, J.M., Horn, G.P., Madrzykowski, D. (2016) “Characterizing a Firefighter’s Immediate Thermal Environment in Live-Fire Training Scenarios.” Fire Technology,52(6):1339-1350.DOI: 10.1007/s10694-015-0555-1. OPEN ACCESS. View Online.
  3. Neitzl, R.L., Long, R.N., Sun, K., Sayler, S. Von Thaden, T.L. (2016)"Injury Risk and Noise Exposure in Firefighter Training Operations." Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 60(4):405-420. DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mev088. OPEN ACCESS. View Online.
  4. Petruzzello, S.J., Poh, P.Y.S., Greenlee, T.A., Goldstein, E., Horn, G., Smith, D.L. (2016) "Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career vs. Volunteer Firefighters to Live-Fire Training Drills." Stress and Health, 32(4):328-336. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2620. View Online. PubMed.
  5. Smith, D.L., DeBlois, J.P., Kales, S.N., Horn, G.P. (2016) “Cardiovascular Strain of Firefighting and the Risk for Sudden Cardiac Events.Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 44(3):90-97. doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000081. View Online. PubMed.
  6. Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P., Woods, J.A., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Fernhall, B. (2016) “Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemostatic Responses in Firefighters Aged 40-60 Years.American Journal of Cardiology, 118(2):275-280. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.04.032. View Online.
  7. Kesler, R.M., Horn, G.P., Rosengren, K.S., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T. (2016) “Analysis of Foot Clearance in Firefighters during Ascent and Descent of Stairs.” Applied Ergonomics, 52:18-23. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2015.05.011. View Online.



  1. Lane, A., Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Ranadive, S.M, Yan, H., Sun, P., Bunsawat, K., Kappus, R., and Fernhall, B. (2015) “Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemodynamics in Older Firefighters.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(12):2653-2659. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000713. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Horn, G.P., Kesler, R.M., Motl, R.W., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T., Klaren, R.E., Ensari, I., Petrucci, M.N., Fernhall, B., Rosengren, K.S. (2015) “Physiological Responses to Simulated Firefighter Exercise Protocols in Varying Environments.” Ergonomics, 58(6):1012-1021. DOI:10.1080/00140139.2014.997806. View Online. PubMed.
  3. Fent, K.W., Evans, D.E., Booher, D., Pleil, J.D., Stiegel, M.A., Horn, G.P., Dalton, J. (2015), “Volatile organic compounds off-gassing from firefighters’ personal protective equipment ensembles after use.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(6):404-414.   DOI:10.1080/15459624.2015.1025135. View Online. PubMed.
  4. Horn, G.P., Chaussidon, J., Obstalecki, M., Martin, D.A. Kurath, P., Backstrom, R.G., Kerber, S., (2015), “Evaluating Fire Service Escape Ropes at Elevated Temperatures and Fire Conditions.” Fire Technology, 51(1):153-171.  DOI: 10.1007/s10694-013-0373-2. View Online.
  5. Martin, D.A., Boron, K., Obstalecki, M., Kurath, P., Horn, G.P. (2015), “Feasibility of Knots to Reduce the Maximum Dynamic Arresting Load in Rope Systems.” Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 1:214-224. DOI: 10.1007/s40870-015-0015-5. OPEN ACCESS. View Online.
  6. Hur, P., Park, K., Rosengren, K.S., Horn, G.P., Hsiao-Wecksler (2015) “Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.Applied Ergonomics, 48:49-55. DOI:10.1016/j.apergo.2014.11.003. View Online. PubMed.
  7. Kesler, R.M., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T., Motl, R.W., Klaren, R.E., Ensari, I., Horn, G.P. (2015) “A modified facepeice for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.” Ergonomics, 58(1):148-159.DOI:10.1080/00140139.2014.964783. View Online. PubMed.


  1. Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P., Petruzzello, S.J., Freund, G.G., Woods, J.A., Cook, M.D., Goldstein, E, Fernhall, B. (2014), “Effect of Obesity of Acute Hemostatic Responses to Live-Fire Training Drills.American Journal of Cardiology, 114(11):1768-1771. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.08.046. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Fent, K.W., Eisenberg, J., Snawder, J., Sammons, D., Pleil, J.D., Stiegel, M.A., Mueller, C., Horn, G.P., Dalton, J. (2014), “Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 58 (7): 830-845 DOI:10.1093/annhyg/meu036. OPEN ACCESS. PubMed.
  3. Greenlee,T.A., Horn,G.,  Smith,D.L., Fahey,G., Goldstein,E., Petruzzello, S.J. (2014),"The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance." Ergonomics, 57(5):764-73. DOI:10.1080/00140139.2014.897375. View Online. PubMed.
  4. Klaren, R.E., Horn, G.P., Fernhall, B., Motl, R.W. (2014), “Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters.” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 9:17 doi:10.1186/1745-6673-9-17. OPEN ACCESS. PubMed.
  5. Martin, D.A., Obstalecki, M., Kurath, P., Horn, G.P. (2014), “An approach for quantifying dynamic properties and simulated deployment loading of fire service escape rope systems.” Experimental Techniques, DOI:10.1111/ext.12073. View Online.
  6. Rosengren, K. S., Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T., & Horn, G. (2014).  “Fighting fires without falling: Effects of equipment design and fatigue on firefighters balance and gait.” Ecological Psychology, 26, 167-175 DOI: 10.1080/10407413.2014.875357. View Online.
  7. Soteriades, E.S., Smith, D.L., Tsismenakis, A.J., Baur, D.M., Kales, S.N. (2011) “Cardiovascular disease in US firefighters.Cardiology in Review, 19(4), pp. 202-215. View Online. PubMed.
  8. Kappus, R.M., Fahs, C.A., Smith, D., Horn, G.P., Agiovlasitis, S., Rossow, L.M., Jae, S.Y., Heffernan, K.S., and Fernhall, B, (2014), “Obesity, Overweight Associated with Increased Carotid Diameter and Decreased Arterial Function in Young Otherwise Healthy Men.” American Journal of Hypertension, 27(4):628-634. DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpt152. View Online. PubMed.
  9. Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P., Petruzzello, S.J., Fahey, G., Woods, J., and Fernhall, B. (2014) “Clotting and Fibrinolytic Changes following Firefighting Activities.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(3):448-454. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182a76dd2. View Online. PubMed.
  10. Hur,P.,  Rosengren, K.S.,  Horn, G.P., Smith, D.L., and Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T. (2013), “Effect of protective clothing and fatigue on functional balance of firefighters. Journal of  Ergonomics, S2: 004, doi:10.4172/2165-7556.S2-004. OPEN ACCESS.  
  11. Horn, G.P., Blevins, S., Fernhall, B., and Smith, D.L. (2013) “Core temperature and heart rate response to repeated bouts of firefighting activities.” Ergonomics, 56(9):1465-73. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2013.818719. View Online. PubMed.


  1. Yan H., Fahs C.A., Ranadive S., Rossow L.M., Lane A.D., Agiovlasitis S., Echols G.,  Smith D., Horn G., Rowland T., and Fernhall B. (2012) “Evaluation of Carotid Wave Intensity in Firefighters Following Firefighting.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(7):2385-2391. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-2188-5. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Horn, G.P., Deblois, J., Shalmyeva, I., Smith, D.L. (2012) “Quantifying dehydration in the fire service using field methods and novel devices.” Prehospital Emergency Care, 16(3):347-355. View Online. PubMed.
  3. Fernhall, B., Fahs, C.A, Horn, G.P., Rowland, T., and Smith, D. (2012) “Acute Effects of Firefighting on Cardiac Performance.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(2):735-741. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-2033-x. View Online. PubMed.
  4. Fahs, C.A., Yan, H., Ranadive, S., Rossow, L.M., Agiovlasitis, S., Echols, G., Smith, D., Horn, G.P., Rowland, T., Lane, A., Fernhall, B. (2011) “Acute effects of firefighting on arterial stiffness and blood flow.” Vascular Medicine, 16(2):113-118. View Online. PubMed.
  5. Park, K., Rosengren, K.S., Horn, G.P., Smith, D.L., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T. (2011) “Assessing gait changes in firefighters due to fatigue and protective clothing.” Safety Science, 49(5):719-726. View Online.
  6. Soteriades, E.S., Smith, D.L., Tsismenakis, A.J., Baur, D.M., Kales, S.N. (2011) “Cardiovascular disease in US firefighters.Cardiology in Review, 19(4):202-215. View Online. PubMed.
  7. Horn, G.P., Gutzmer, S., Fahs, C.A., Petruzzello, S.J., Goldstein, E., Fahey, G.C., Fernhall, B., Smith, D.L. (2011) “Physiological recovery from firefighting activities in rehabilitation and beyond.Prehospital Emergency Care, 15(2):214-225. View Online. PubMed.
  8. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Goldstein, E., Ahmad, U., Tangella, K., Freund, G.G., Horn, G.P. (2011) “Effect of live-fire training drills on firefighters’ platelet number and function.Prehospital Emergency Care, 15(2):233-239. View Online. PubMed.


  1. Park, K., Hur, P., Rosengren, K.S., Horn, G.P., Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T. (2010) “Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.Ergonomics, 53(7):882-891. DOI:10.1080/00140139.2010.489962. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Fahs, C.A., Smith, D.L., Horn, G.P., Agiovlasitis, S., Rossow, L.M., Echols, G., Heffernan, K. S., Fernhall, B. (2009) “Impact of excess body weight on arterial structure, function, and blood pressure in firefighters.American Journal of Cardiology, 104(10):1441-1445. View Online. PubMed.
  3. Petruzzello, S.J., Gapin, J.I., Snook, E., Smith, D.L. (2009) “Perceptual and physiological heat strain: Examination in firefighters in laboratory and field-based studies.Ergonomics, 52(6):747-754. View Online. PubMed.
  4. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Chludzinski, M.A., Reed J.J., Woods J.A. (2005) “Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.Ergonomics, 48(1):55-65. View Online. PubMed.


  1. Smith, D.L., Dyer, K., Petruzzello, S.J. (2004) “Blood chemistry and immune cell changes during 1 week of intensive firefighting training.Journal of Thermal Biology, 29(7-8 SPEC. ISS):725-729. View Online.
  2. Smith, D.L. (2002) “Acute effects of fire fighting activity on coagulation.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34:S194.
  3. Smith, D.L., Manning, T.S., Petruzzello, S.J. (2001). “Effect of strenuous live-fire drills on cardiovascular and psychological responses of recruit firefighters.Ergonomics, 44(3):244-254. View Online. PubMed.
  4. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Chludzinski, M.A., Reed J.J., Woods J.A. (2001) “Effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills on hematological, blood chemistry, and psychological measures.Journal of Thermal Biology, 26(4-5):375-379. View Online.


  1. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J. (1998) “Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear.Ergonomics, 41(8):1141-1154. View Online. PubMed.
  2. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Kramer J.M., Misner J.E. (1997) “The effects of different thermal environments on the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters to a training drill.Ergonomics, 40(4):500-510. View Online. PubMed.
  3. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Kramer J.M., Misner J.E. (1996) “Physiological, psychophysical, and psychological responses of firefighters to firefighting training drills.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 67:1063-1068. PubMed.
  4. Smith, D.L., Petruzzello, S.J., Kramer J.M., Warner, S.E., Bone, B.G., Misner J.E. (1995) “Selected physiological and psychobiological responses to physical activity in different configurations of firefighting gear.Ergonomics. 38(10):2065-2077. View Online.
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